Warning! some of what you are about to see may be offensive to
accomplished programmers. The end results you see in textbooks
and on the Euler Project forum are **polished,** and do not
necessarily reflect the blind alleys and false starts that
people go through to arrive at the final result. The purpose of
this paper is to travel down the path towards a solution,
knowing full well that some approaches are doomed to failure.

For completeness I'll restate the problem here briefly. The problem is to count trinary strings of length k subject to the following rules:

- Strings consist of the characters O, L and A
- Strings may contain at most one L, anywhere.
- Strings must not end with more than 2 A's

These strings are described in the problem as award strings, where O represents a student who attended class On time, L a student who came Late, and A a student who was Absent entirely. Here is a list of length 3 strings that satisfy the above conditions:

AAL AAO ALA ALO AOA AOL AOO LAA LAO LOA LOO OAA OAL OAO OLA OLO OOA OOL OOO

The rules are simple enough, so lets attack the problem by
starting there. We'll implement the rules as a filter over all
possible strings of length k. Of course this can't work for
long, for 3^k grows, well exponentially. But at least it gives
us a starting point to **play** with the problem. So I proceeded:

Now running cc 3 produces:

[[A,A,L],[A,A,O],[A,L,A],[A,L,O],[A,O,A],[A,O,L],[A,O,O], [L,A,A],[L,A,O],[L,O,A],[L,O,O],[O,A,A],[O,A,L],[O,A,O], [O,L,A],[O,L,O],[O,O,A],[O,O,L],[O,O,O]]

all wrapped together on one line, ugly, very ugly. Which brings me to one of the best and most overlooked development tools, namely the Text.PrettyPrint library. I added the following:

> lp n x d = if null a2 then render c else lp n a2 c > where > (a1,a2) = splitAt n x > b = map (text . concatMap show) a1 > c = d $$ hsep b > s l = putStrLn $ (lp 10 l empty) ++ "\n"So now running **s $ cc 3** results in:

AAL AAO ALA ALO AOA AOL AOO LAA LAO LOA LOO OAA OAL OAO OLA OLO OOA OOL OOO

Which is much easier to stare at. Well, maybe we'll get lucky, so let's try running cc over a bunch of values, couting the lengths and looking at the result.

map (\x -> length (cc x)) [3..10] [19,43,94,200,418,861,1753,3536]

No obvious pattern, and least none that my brain can conjour up. Looks like we'll actually have to do some work. Let's define some functions that filter the output in various pieces, like those strings that contain no Ls or only one L, or not ending in one A or two As.

Wait a minute! How do you get from a string of length (n-1) to one of length n? You have to append either an O, an L or an A. Now you can append an O to anything, you can append an L to a string that doesn't contain an L, and you can append an A to a string that doesn't end it two A's. So we should have:

> award n = award (n-1) plus an **O** > + noLs (n-1) plus an **L** > + notTwoAs (n-1) plus and **A**> noL = filter (\x -> notElem L x) > oneL = filter (\x -> elem L x) > notOneA = filter (\x -> last x /= A) > notTwoA = filter (\x -> take 2 (reverse x) /= [A,A]) > addX x l = map (\z -> z ++ [x]) l

Let's play with these functions a while, and check out our analysis above:

*Main> s $ cc 4 AALA AALO AAOA AAOL AAOO ALAA ALAO ALOA ALOO AOAA AOAL AOAO AOLA AOLO AOOA AOOL AOOO LAAO LAOA LAOO LOAA LOAO LOOA LOOO OAAL OAAO OALA OALO OAOA OAOL OAOO OLAA OLAO OLOA OLOO OOAA OOAL OOAO OOLA OOLO OOOA OOOL OOOO *Main> s $ addX O $ cc 3 AALO AAOO ALAO ALOO AOAO AOLO AOOO LAAO LAOO LOAO LOOO OAAO OALO OAOO OLAO OLOO OOAO OOLO OOOO *Main> s $ addX L $ noL $cc 3 AAOL AOAL AOOL OAAL OAOL OOAL OOOL *Main> s $ addX A $ notTwoA $cc 3 AALA AAOA ALAA ALOA AOAA AOLA AOOA LAOA LOAA LOOA OALA OAOA OLAA OLOA OOAA OOLA OOOA

Well, the count is right, but to really make sure I'm not confused, I should write something to make sure that the union of the three lower sets equals the top set. We need a little more code.

> checkUnions n = > let c1 = cc n > c2 = S.fromList (cc (n+1)) > c1O = addX O c1 > c1A = addX L (noL c1) > c1L = addX A (notTwoA c1) > cU = S.unions $ map S.fromList [c1O,c1A,c1L] > in S.difference c2 cUA quick run of checkUnions n for small n (3,4,5,6) always returns the empty set, so this confirms our thinking above. Now we need to figure out how to count the size of these sets without generating them. So far we have figured out how to count award (n) in terms of award (n-1) and two as yet unknown functions, noLs and notTwoAs. We need to look at those now. Let's start with notTwoAs, which is a string that doesn't end with two As. It can end with either an O, an A, or an L. Now any award (n-1) string to which we append an O will be a notTwoAs (n) string, since it doesn't end with two As. Also, any string that contains no Ls can have an L appended to it, and will became a string that doesn't end in two As. Finally, string that doesn't end with a single A can have an A appended to it and will become a string that doesn't end with two As. Expressing this in code we have:

> award1 3 = 19 > award1 n = award1 (n-1) -- + O > + noLs (n-1) -- + L > + notTwoAs (n-1) -- + A > > notTwoAs 3 = 17 > notTwoAs n = notOneAs (n-1) -- + A > + award1 (n-1) -- + O > + noLs (n-1) -- + LWell, we solved one problem and created another, for we expressed our now know function notTwoAs in terms of a new unknown function notOneAs. Slog on.

> notOneAs 3 = 12 > notOneAs n = award1 (n-1) -- + O > + noLs (n-1) -- + L > -- + 0 since it can't end in an A > > noLs 3 = 7 > noLs n = noLs (n-1) -- + O > + noLsANDnotTwoAs (n-1) -- + A > -- + 0 since it can't contain an LIs there no end to this? We nailed down notOneA, but when computing noLs we had to add another unknown function, namely noLsANDnotTwoAs, which, you guessed it, counts strings that contain no Ls and do not end with two As. Slog on.

> noLsANDnotTwoAs 3 = 6 > noLsANDnotTwoAs n = noLs (n-1) -- + O > + noLsANDnotOneA (n-1) -- + A > > noLsANDnotOneA 3 = 4 > noLsANDnotOneA n = noLs (n-1) -- + OFinally we have covered all of the cases. Now let's make sure they agree with counting the sets explicitly.

> test n = > let a = cc n > in [ length a == award1 n, > length (noL a) == noLs n, > length (notTwoA a) == notTwoAs n ]If we now run map test [3..10] we are inspired with confidence, watch all those Trues written on the screen. We do notice a slight pause as it prints out the last list, however. This is a harbinger of things to come, for if we type award 20 the answer 2947811 comes back in a couple of seconds. We have the same problem here as with the fibonacci series, namely an exponential increase in the number of terms we must compute. However since the answer we seek is for the value 30, and 20 is tractable, I am going to cheat by defining each of the functions above for the value 20, rather than memoizing everything.

award 20 = 2947811 notTwoAs 20 = 2504754 notOneAs 20 = 1649022 noLs 20 = 223317 noLsANDnotTwoAs 20 = 187427 noLsANDnotOneA 20 = 121415

Unfortunately, you have to go back and paste these values into the code above, in order for ghci to be happy, but if you do so you can easily compute the value of award 30.

Are we done, well yes and no. At this point we can notice that all of functions noLs, notTwoAs, etc. are really special cases of a function we could call hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As m n k, which takes the number of Ls and As it contains as a parameter. In fact it might even be easier to look at it this way. Our award code then becomes:

> award 1 = 3 > award k = award (k-1) -- + O > + sum [ hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As 0 i (k-1) | i<-[0..2] ] -- +L > + sum [ hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As i j (k-1) | i<-[0,1], j<-[0,1] ] -- +A > > hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As 0 0 1 = 1 -- O > hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As 1 0 1 = 1 -- L > hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As 0 1 1 = 1 -- A > hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As _ _ 1 = 0 > > hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As m n k > | m < 0 || n < 0 = 0 > | n == 0 = sum [ hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As (m-1) i (k-1) | i<-[0..2]] -- +L > + sum [ hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As m i (k-1) | i<-[0..2]] -- +O > | n > 0 = hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As m (n-1) (k-1) -- + A > > problem191 n = do > let p a b c d = "hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As " ++ > foldl (\x y -> x ++ (show y) ++ " ") "" [a,b,c] ++ > "= " ++ (show d) > putStrLn $ "award " ++ (show n) ++ " = " ++ show (award n) > mapM_ (\(i,j) -> putStrLn $ p i j n (hasM_LsAndEndsInN_As i j n)) > [ (i,j) | i<-[0..1], j<-[0..2]]Now having read the Euler Project Forum for this project, I can
tell you that there are many far more elegant solutions to this
problem, but my point is that by **playing** with the problem, and
looking at the results of your play, you can often get a feeling
for what is going on, and then come up with a strategy that
leads to a solution, writing little tests along the way to
confirm and disprove your conjectures. I hope this helps all of
you future Euler Project Puzzlers on the next problem, whatever
it is.

This file is also available as an lhs file if you want to play with it.